Urine Routine Examination
A urine routine examination is a test of urine that checks the appearance, concentration, and content of urine.
Why is the routine urine examination prescribed?
A routine urine test is used to check and manage a wide range of disorders such as to diagnose of-
- Kidney stone
What are the components of urine routine tests?
Urine routine test has three parts
- Physical examination – To evaluate the urine for color and appearance.
- Chemical examination – To evaluate
- pH of urine. An abnormal pH signifies kidney stones, urinary infections, chronic kidney disease, or certain kidney disorders.
- Protein signifies damage of kidney’s filtering unit by kidney disease.
- Sugar signifies diabetes.
- Pus cells are signs of infection.
- Bilirubin signifies liver disease.
- Blood indicates renal stones and requires further evaluation.
- Creatinine gives an estimate of the concentration of the urine.
- Nitrites or leukocyte esterase signifies urinary tract infection.
- Microscopic examination - This includes examining a small amount of urine under a microscope, which evaluates & look for the following
- Red blood cells indicate kidney diseases that damage the kidneys, kidney stones, infections, bladder cancer, or a blood disorder like sickle cell disease.
- White blood cells indicate an infection or inflammation in the kidneys, bladder, or other areas.
- Bacteria indicates an infection in the body.
- Crystals may signify kidney stones.
- Casts may form as a result of kidney disorders.
Procedure and prerequisites
Mid-stream urine should be collected, not at the beginning nor at the end.
||Trace to 1 mg/dL
||Male 0-2/ hpf
Female 0-5/ hpf
||Varies with collection
|Bacteria clean catch
These values are for theoretical reference and may vary from laboratory to laboratory and person to person.