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Urine Routine Examination






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Amorphous debrisBacteriaBile PigmentsBile SaltsBilirubinBloodCastsColorCrystalsEpithelial CellsGlucoseKetonesleukocytesNitriteOtherspH-UrineProteinsPus cellsRBCRemarks:Specific Gravity UrineTransparencyUrobilinogenVolume (ml)Yeast Cells

Urine Routine Examination

A urine routine examination is a test of urine that checks the appearance, concentration, and content of urine.

Why is the routine urine examination prescribed?

A routine urine test is used to check and manage a wide range of disorders such as to diagnose of-

  • Infection
  • Diabetes
  • Kidney stone

What are the components of urine routine tests?

Urine routine test has three parts

  • Physical examination – To evaluate the urine for color and appearance.
  • Chemical examination – To evaluate
    • pH of urine. An abnormal pH signifies kidney stones, urinary infections, chronic kidney disease, or certain kidney disorders.
    • Protein signifies damage of kidney’s filtering unit by kidney disease.
    • Sugar signifies diabetes.
    • Pus cells are signs of infection.
    • Bilirubin signifies liver disease. 
    • Blood indicates renal stones and requires further evaluation.
    • Creatinine gives an estimate of the concentration of the urine.
    • Nitrites or leukocyte esterase signifies urinary tract infection.
  • Microscopic examination - This includes examining a small amount of urine under a microscope, which evaluates & look for the following
    • Red blood cells indicate kidney diseases that damage the kidneys, kidney stones, infections, bladder cancer, or a blood disorder like sickle cell disease.
    • White blood cells indicate an infection or inflammation in the kidneys, bladder, or other areas.
    • Bacteria indicates an infection in the body.
    • Crystals may signify kidney stones.
    • Casts may form as a result of kidney disorders.

Procedure and prerequisites

Mid-stream urine should be collected, not at the beginning nor at the end.

Reference range

Color  Straw
Turbidity    Clear
pH    4.5-8
Specific Gravity 1.001-1.030
Protein    Negative
Glucose    Negative
Ketone    Negative
Bile      Trace to 1 mg/dL
Urobilinogen Blood     Negative
Leukocyte    Negative
Esterase      Negative
Nitrite    Negative


WBC Male 0-2/ hpf
Female 0-5/ hpf
RBC Male 0-3/hpf
Female 0-4/hpf
Casts 0-1 hyaline/lpf
Epithelial Squamous Varies with collection
Epithelial Transitional 0-2
Bacteria clean catch Occasional
Bacteria Catheterized Not seen

These values are for theoretical reference and may vary from laboratory to laboratory and person to person.

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